Bags of cement routinely have health and safety warnings printed on them, because not only is cement highly alkaline, but the setting process is also exothermic. Portland cement refers to a class of hydraulic cements that are odorless gray powders containing less than 1 percent crystalline silica. The ingredients are mixed in the proportion of about two parts of calcareous materials to one part of argillaceous materials and then crushed and ground … Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC) First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size. Five types of Portland cements exist, with variations of the first three according to ASTM C150. These processes can vary widely, depending upon the mix used and the conditions of curing of the product, but a typical concrete sets in about 6 hours and develops a compressive strength of 8 MPa in 24 hours. White Portland cement or white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC) is similar to ordinary, grey, Portland cement in all respects, except for its high degree of whiteness. 14 4. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "ASTM C185-15a, Standard Test Method for Air Content of Hydraulic Cement Mortar", "Eco-efficient cements: Potential economically viable solutions for a low-CO 2 cement-based materials industry", "Technology Roadmap - Low-Carbon Transition in the Cement Industry: Foldout", "125 Years of Research for Quality and Progress", "Risk of lung cancer among masons in Iceland", "Formulating a low-alkalinity, high-resistance and low-heat concrete for radioactive waste repositories", "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Portland cement", "Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Sulfur Dioxide Exposure in Portland Cement Plants", "Toward a Sustainable Cement Industry: Environment, Health & Safety Performance Improvement", World Business Council for Sustainable Development, World Production of Hydraulic Cement, by Country, Alpha The Guaranteed Portland Cement Company: 1917 Trade Literature from Smithsonian Institution Libraries, "Concrete Is Remixed With Environment in Mind", CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, International Federation for Structural Concrete, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portland_cement&oldid=997542694, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from January 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with disputed statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2015, Articles needing additional references from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2008, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Comprising Portland cement and up to 5% of minor additional constituents, Portland cement and up to 35% of other* single constituents, Portland cement and higher percentages of blastfurnace slag, Portland cement, blastfurnace slag or fly ash and pozzolana. 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